32-bit Addressing on Older Macs
Dan Knight - March 1998, updated Dec. 2001
I upgraded my memory past 8 MB, but a bunch of memory seems to be missing or used by the OS.
It's there, but you need to switch from 24-bit to 32-bit addressing in the Memory control panel.
The oldest Macs (68000-based) and the Mac OS prior to System 7 ran only in a 24-bit addressing mode. To maintain compatibility, and because the operating system didn't support 32-bit addressing until System 7, later Macs defaulted to 24-bit addressing. Apple didn't abandon 24-bit addressing as an option until the Centris 660av and Quadra 840av shipped in July 1993. Power Macs only operate in 32-bit mode.
System 7 was Apple's first operating system to support 32-bit addressing. This broke through the 8 MB memory barrier on all Macs not based on the 68000 CPU. With 32-bit addressing enabled, many models could see 64-128 MB of memory, and a few as much as 256 MB.
Without enabling 32-bit addressing, the Mac OS only has access to 8 MB of memory. Anything beyond that is reported as used by the system.
One more problem is that some of the earlier Macs (Mac II, IIx, SE/30, IIcx) didn't ship with 32-bit "clean" ROMs, meaning they couldn't operate in 32-bit mode without some help. Connectix created a program, Mode32 (search the page for "mode32"), which let Macs with "dirty" ROMs operate in 32-bit mode. Apple licensed the software, allowing any Mac user who needs it to download a copy for free.
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